Entertainment Weekly gave the game an A- and wrote that "While it's never too early to teach kids to respect the biosphere, the same may not be true of introducing them to complicated simulations such as Simearth: The Living Planet FCI, for Super NES , which has more variables temperature, precipitation, etc. There's something to be said for this, though: A task as simple as 'growing a daisy'—one option offered here—requires knowing far more than which button to push to cream the bad guy. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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Namespaces Article Talk. Polish alchemist and physician Michael Sendivogius in his work De Lapide Philosophorum Tractatus duodecim e naturae fonte et manuali experientia depromti described a substance contained in air, referring to it as'cibus vitae', this substance is identical with oxygen.
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Sendivogius, during his experiments performed between and , properly recognized that the substance is equivalent to the gaseous byproduct released by the thermal decomposition of potassium nitrate. Atmosphere An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, held in place by the gravity of that body.
An atmosphere is more to be retained if the gravity it is subject to is high and the temperature of the atmosphere is low; the atmosphere of Earth is composed of nitrogen , argon , carbon dioxide and other gases in trace amounts. Oxygen is used by most organisms for respiration ; the atmosphere helps to protect living organisms from genetic damage by solar ultraviolet radiation, solar wind and cosmic rays. The current composition of the Earth's atmosphere is the product of billions of years of biochemical modification of the paleoatmosphere by living organisms; the term stellar atmosphere describes the outer region of a star and includes the portion above the opaque photosphere.
Stars with sufficiently low temperatures may have outer atmospheres with compound molecules. Atmospheric pressure at a particular location is the force per unit area perpendicular to a surface determined by the weight of the vertical column of atmosphere above that location.
On Earth, units of air pressure are based on the internationally recognized standard atmosphere, defined as It is measured with a barometer. Atmospheric pressure decreases with increasing altitude due to the diminishing mass of gas above; the height at which the pressure from an atmosphere declines by a factor of e is called the scale height and is denoted by H.
For an atmosphere with a uniform temperature, the scale height is proportional to the temperature and inversely proportional to the product of the mean molecular mass of dry air and the local acceleration of gravity at that location. For such a model atmosphere, the pressure declines exponentially with increasing altitude. However, atmospheres are not uniform in temperature, so estimation of the atmospheric pressure at any particular altitude is more complex. Surface gravity differs among the planets.
For example, the large gravitational force of the giant planet Jupiter retains light gases such as hydrogen and helium that escape from objects with lower gravity. Secondly, the distance from the Sun determines the energy available to heat atmospheric gas to the point where some fraction of its molecules' thermal motion exceed the planet's escape velocity, allowing those to escape a planet's gravitational grasp. Thus and cold Titan and Pluto are able to retain their atmospheres despite their low gravities. Since a collection of gas molecules may be moving at a wide range of velocities, there will always be some fast enough to produce a slow leakage of gas into space.
Lighter molecules move faster than heavier ones with the same thermal kinetic energy, so gases of low molecular weight are lost more than those of high molecular weight, it is thought that Venus and Mars may have lost much of their water when, after being photo dissociated into hydrogen and oxygen by solar ultraviolet, the hydrogen escaped. Earth's magnetic field helps to prevent this, as the solar wind would enhance the escape of hydrogen.
The net effect, taking the most important escape processes into account, is that an intrinsic magnetic field does not protect a planet from atmospheric escape and that for some magnetizations the presence of a magnetic field works to increase the escape rate. Other mechanisms that can cause atmosphere depletion are solar wind-induced sputtering , impact erosion and sequestration—sometimes referred to as "freezing out"—into the regolith and polar caps. Atmospheres have dramatic effects on the surfaces of rocky bodies.
Objects that have no atmosphere, or that have only an exosphere , have terrain, covered in craters. Without an atmosphere, the planet has no protection from meteoroids , all of them collide with the surface as meteorites and create craters. Most meteoroids burn up as meteors before hitting a planet's surface; when meteoroids do impact, the effects are erased by the action of wind. As a result, craters are rare on objects with atmospheres. Wind erosion is a significant factor in shaping the terrain of rocky planets with atmospheres, over time can erase the effects of both craters and volcanoes.
In addition, since liquids can not exist without pressure, an atmosphere allows liquid to be present at the surface, resulting in lakes and oceans. Earth and Titan are known to have liquids at their surface and terrain on the planet suggests that Mars had liquid on its surface in the past. A planet's initial atmospheric composition is related to the chemistry and temperature of the local solar nebula during planetary formation and the subsequent escape of interior gases; the original atmospheres started with a rotating disc of gases that collapsed to form a series of spaced rings that condensed to form the planets.
The planet's atmospheres were modified over time by various complex factors, resulting in quite different outcomes; the atmospheres of the planets Venus and Mars are composed of carbon dioxide, with small quantities of nitrogen , argon and traces of other gases.
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The composition of Earth's atmosphere is governed by the by-products of the life that it sust. Sega Sega Games Co. The company known as Sega Enterprises Ltd. Sega developed its first coin-operated game with Periscope in the late s.
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In , Sega was sold to Western Industries. Following a downturn in the arcade business in the early s, Sega began to develop video game consoles, starting with the SG and Master System , but struggled against competitors such as the Nintendo Entertainment System. Sega released its next console, the Sega Genesis , in Although it was a distant third in Japan , the Genesis found major success after the release of Sonic the Hedgehog in and outsold its main competitor, the Super Nintendo Entertainment System , in the U.
S; however in the decade, Sega suffered commercial failures such as the 32X, Sega Saturn , Dreamcast consoles. In , Sega stopped manufacturing consoles to become a third-party developer and publisher, was acquired by Sammy Corporation in In the years since the acquisition, Sega has been more profitable, but has been criticized for prioritizing quantity of game releases over quality. Sega produces multi-million-selling game franchises including Sonic the Hedgehog, Total War , Yakuza , is the world's most prolific arcade game producer, it operates amusement arcades and produces other entertainment products, including Sega Toys.
Sega is a subsidiary of Sega Sammy Holdings, a corporate conglomerate with over 60 individual subsidiaries.
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In , American businessmen Martin Bromley, Irving Bromberg , James Humpert formed Standard Games in Honolulu, Hawaii , to provide coin-operated amusement machines to military bases, they saw that the increase in military personnel with the onset of World War II would create demand for entertainment at military bases. After the war, the founders sold Standard Games and established a new distributor, Service Games, named for the military focus.
In , the United States government outlawed slot machines in US territories, so in Bromley sent two employees, Richard Stewart and Ray LeMaire, to Tokyo to establish a new distributor; the company provided coin-operated slot machines to U. On May 31, , Service Games of Japan was dissolved. In , David Rosen, an American officer in the United States Air Force stationed in Japan, launched a two-minute photo booth business in Tokyo; this company became Rosen Enterprises, in began importing coin-operated games to Japan.
Rosen was installed as the CEO and managing director. Shortly afterward, Sega stopped leasing to military bases and moved its focus from slot machines to become a publicly traded company of coin-operated amusement machines, its imports included Rock-Ola jukeboxes, pinball games by Williams, gun games by Midway Manufacturing.
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Because Sega imported second-hand machines that required maintenance, Sega began the transition from importer to manufacturer by constructing replacement guns and flippers for its imported games. According to former Sega director Akira Nagai, this led to Sega developing their own games as well. The first electromechanical game Sega manufactured was the submarine simulator game Periscope, released worldwide in the late s; the game sported light and sound effects considered innovative, was successful in Japan.
It was placed in malls and department stores, it cost 25 cents per play in the United States. Sega was surprised by the success, for the next two years produced and exported between eight and ten games per year. Despite this, rampant piracy in the industry would lead to Sega stepping away from exporting its games. In order to advance the company, Rosen had a goal to take the company public, decided this would be easier to accomplish in the United States than in Japan.
Rosen was advised that this would be easiest accomplished by Sega being acquired by a larger company. Sega released Pong-Tron, its first video-based game, in Despite late competition from Taito's hit arcade game Space Invaders in , Sega prospered from the arcade gam. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Nintendo of America. Archived from the original on Retrieved The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 22 July Retrieved 29 July Computer Gaming World. Archived from the original on 3 December Retrieved 17 November June Sim video games.
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The company, previously known as Sega Enterprises Ltd. The Diamond 3 Star, a model of coin-operated slot machines produced by Sega in the s. It is IBM model number , and was introduced on August 12, Since the TurboGrafx used a different controller port, its input devices and peripherals required an adapter in order to be used on a TurboDuo. A prototype of the Macintosh from at the Computer History Museum.
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The Macintosh II , the first Macintosh model with color graphics. The X is a home computer created by Sharp Corporation, first released in , sold only in Japan. Original CZC model. Sharp X Computer Video Board. Samurai warriors facing Mongols during the Mongol invasions of Japan ; Suenaga , Emperor Meiji — , in whose name imperial rule was restored at the end of the Tokugawa shogunate. The Japanese archipelago as seen from satellite. North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
Washington National Cathedral , in Washington, D. The United States has the most people in the world identifying as Christian. A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a two- or three-dimensional video display device such as a TV screen, virtual reality headset or computer monitor. People playing a large scale version of the iconic Pong video game at the National Videogame Museum. Tennis for Two, an early analog computer game that used an oscilloscope for a display.
A modern recreation of a controller for Tennis for Two. Civilization 3. Dyna Blaster 4. Tycoon 5. Dangerous Dave 6. Prehistorik 8.